了解跨境電子商務(跨境電商)的挑戰

跨境電子商務(跨境電商)是必須多方必須協同工作,以平滑跨境電子商務的路徑。問題產生於這樣一個事實,即每一方都有不同的理解水平,動機和緊迫感。
然而,一旦你了解它們,就有可能準備和克服挑戰嗎?
大多數跨境電子商務(跨境電商)障礙可以分為以下主要類別:
1.監管問題
2.付款方式和付款處理
3.物流和逆向物流
4.組織準備

跨境電子商務(跨境電商)cross-border-ecommerce-ok

跨境電子商務(跨境電商)監管問題:
不一致:在最低限度,業務需要監管的一致性。但電子商務對監管機構的挑戰正在導致他們反復改變主意。即使在像美國這樣的發達國家,也存在關於國家稅對電子商務交易的適用性的爭論,所以你可以想像在欠發達國家法律和稅收法規的不一致性。
國內公司:有幾個國家對待國內公司與國外公司有很大不同。因此,如果您認真對待特定國家/地區的客戶,您可能會發現在本地合併您的優勢。
銷售的法律限制:每個國家都有其獨特的一套做法,不要介紹什麼可以賣給誰。大多數國家認為未成年人簽署的交易是不可執行的,但法定成年的確切年齡因國家而異。同樣,有幾類產品 – 食品,酒精,武器和古董等 – 也有特定的要求。即使作為電子商務業務,您也可以對不滿足這些要求承擔責任。例如,客戶的國家可能要求所有包裝食品必須在標籤上印有成分,營養價值,生產日期和有效期。如果您從不符合這些規定的國家/地區運送商品,您可能違反了客戶所在國家/地區的當地法律。
法律框架的明確性和實力:這不僅僅是要滿足當地法律,而且還涉及在需要時訴諸法院和主管當局。世界上有幾個國家有一個相當薄弱的法律框架。即使在框架健全的情況下,司法程序的延誤也常常是一個巨大的問題。因此,雖然電子商務玩家出售到另一個國家將必然遵守該國的法規,但出於所有實際目的,它可能無法在那裡捍衛其法律權利。

跨境電子商務(跨境電商)付款方法和處理:
強大的支付處理系統對於電子商務是絕對必要的。首選付款機制在世界各地各不相同,因此,在對您的付款系統做出假設之前,請先研究您的潛在市場。
在日本,Konbini是當地的支付方式,佔電子商務付款的六分之一。
雖然在西班牙接近100%的電子商務付款是由Visa,MasterCard和美國運通,在法國,它接近60%,在德國祇有30%。
有趣的是,德國有一個發達的電子商務生態系統,沒有高度的信用卡滲透。印度和其他亞洲國家表示強烈傾向於貨到付款。

您需要接受客戶喜歡的付款方式。除了信用卡,沒有其他真正的全球性付款方式。

跨境電子商務(跨境電商)物流和逆向物流:
除非你是獨家銷售數字下載,否則你必須開發強大的物流過程。有效的物流已經反复證明是在線,以及線下,零售商的強大的競爭優勢。
與跨境物流相關的成本可能是您的電子商務業務的起點。

但它不只是關於成本。它也是關於可靠性和可預測性。我遇到了幾個小電子商務企業,工作的前提是,他們的角色結束,一旦他們可以證明他們將物品交給物流提供商。
但這不是客戶的想法。客戶相信您有責任確保產品達到他們。

如果您的交貨物流是複雜的,想像反向物流的複雜性。鑑於成本,關稅和文件,許多電子商務玩家可能無法在跨境情況下提供逆向物流。

跨境電子商務(跨境電商)組織準備:
任何關於國際電子商務的限制的討論將是不完整的,如果我們不專注於企業自己準備出售國外。
從對當地品味的欣賞到對文化因素的敏感性,你必須深刻理解你打算利用的每一個市場。

儘管本文中提到的挑戰列表,跨境電子商務在增長的經濟體周圍具有巨大的商業潛力

Understanding the challenges in cross-border ecommerce

Multiple parties have to work in tandem to smooth the path of cross-border ecommerce. The problem arises from the fact that each of these parties has a different level of understanding, motivation, and sense of urgency.

However, it is possible to prepare for and overcome the challenges once you understand them. Most hurdles can be divided into the following major categories:

    Regulatory issues
    Payment methods and payment processing
    Logistics and reverse logistics
    Organizational readiness

Regulatory Issues

    Inconsistency: At the bare minimum, business requires consistency in regulation. But the challenges that ecommerce is throwing at regulators is causing them to repeatedly change their mind. Even in developed countries, such as the U.S., there is debate about the applicability of state taxes on ecommerce transactions, so you can imagine the inconsistency of legal and tax regulations in less developed countries.

    Domestic incorporation: Several countries treat domestic companies quite differently from those incorporated abroad. So if you are serious about selling to customers in a specific country, you might find it to your advantage to incorporate locally.

    Legal limitations to sale: Every country has its unique set of dos and don’ts about what can be sold to whom. Most countries consider transactions entered into by minors as unenforceable, but the exact age of legal adulthood varies by country. Likewise, several categories of products — food, alcohol, weapons, and antiques, among others — have specific requirements. Even as an ecommerce business, you can be held liable for not meeting those requirements. For instance, a customer’s country might mandate that all packaged food must have the ingredients, nutritional values, manufacturing date, and expiration date printed on the label. If you are shipping goods from a country that does not meet these regulations, you could be in violation of local laws in the customer’s country.

    Clarity and strength of legal frameworks: It’s not just about meeting local laws — it’s also about having recourse to courts and competent authorities when the need arises. Several countries around the world have a rather weak legal framework. Even where the framework is sound, there is often a huge issue with delays in the judicial process. So, while an ecommerce player selling to another country will be bound to live up to the regulations of that country, for all practical purposes it may not be able to defend its legal rights there.

Payment Methods and Processing
A robust payment processing system is absolutely necessary for ecommerce. Preferred payment mechanisms vary across the world, so research your potential market before you make assumptions about your payment system. In Japan, Konbini, a local payment method, accounts for a sixth of ecommerce payments. While close to 100% of ecommerce payments in Spain are by Visa, MasterCard, and American Express, in France it is close to 60%, and in Germany it is only 30%. Interestingly, Germany has a well-developed ecommerce ecosystem without a high degree of credit card penetration. India and other Asian countries have shown a strong preference for cash on delivery.

You will need to accept payment in the method that the customer prefers. Other than credit cards, there is no other truly global payment method.

Logistics and Reverse Logistics
Unless you are exclusively selling digital downloads, you will have to develop a strong logistics process. Effective logistics has repeatedly proven to be a strong competitive advantage for online, as well as offline, retailers. The costs associated with cross-border logistics can be the tipping point for your ecommerce business.

But it is not just about the costs. It is also about reliability and predictability. I have come across several small ecommerce businesses that work on the premise that their role ends once they can prove that they handed over the goods to the logistics provider. But that is not how the customer thinks. Customers believe that you are responsible for ensuring that the product reaches them.

And if your delivery logistics are complex, imagine the complexity of reverse logistics. Given the costs, customs duties, and documentation, many ecommerce players may not be able to provide reverse logistics in cross-border situations.

Organizational Readiness
Any discussion on the constraints to international ecommerce will be incomplete if we do not focus on the business’s own readiness for selling abroad. Right from an appreciation of local tastes to sensitivity for cultural factors, you must develop a deep understanding of every market you intend to tap.

Despite the list of challenges mentioned in this article, cross-border ecommerce presents huge business potential in growing economies around the world. A judicious approach will help you reap the fruits of cross-border ecommerce.

To learn more about the buying preferences of global buyers, down load the 2016 Pitney Bowes Global Online Shopping Study today. 

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